India: Impact Of Rainfall Deficit On Crops And Economy
1 month ago
Grains & Pulses
Grains & Pulses

India: Impact Of Rainfall Deficit On Crops And Economy

Recent rainfall shortage in Southern Peninsula and Central India jeopardizes crop yields, such as soybeans, groundnuts, pulses. Climate-resistant crop varieties are crucial to tackle erratic weather. Slight relief is anticipated with above-average rainfall expected in September 2023.

The recent rainfall shortfall across the Southern Peninsula and Central India regions has sparked concerns about a potential threat to crop yields. With the rainfall deficiency stretching over the month, the repercussions for crops such as Oilseeds, Pulses, and Paddy are becoming apparent. Let’s dive into the rainfall deficit effects on agricultural productivity and explore potential adaptive measures.

Rainfall Deficiency & Crop Yield

The recent rainfall deficiency has raised alarms within the agricultural sector. If the situation doesn’t improve in the next week, standing crops could face moisture stress, with subsequent rainfall in September 2023 offering limited relief. The cumulative impact of below-average precipitation during August 2023 has been staggering, with a 32% deficit against the long-period average. Southern Peninsula and Central India have experienced 62% and 42% less rainfall, respectively. The overall monsoon rains have been 9% below the benchmark, except in Northwest India, where they are 4% above the norm. The lack of rainfall is particularly concerning as crops are approaching critical growth stages.

Oilseed Vulnerable To Water Stress

Oilseeds, a crucial component of India’s agricultural output, are susceptible to water stress. These crops demand consistent moisture during flowering and seed-filling. Unfortunately, the deficient rainfall has led to poor soil moisture content, which is detrimental during these crucial phases. Preliminary estimates suggest that Oilseed yields could plummet by up to 30%.

Soybean cultivation in states like Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra has been severely affected. The rainfall deficiency has also taken a toll on Groundnut cultivation in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Decreased Oilseed yield could lead to higher edible Oil imports, adding pressure to the country’s trade balance.

Pulses Under Pressure

Pulses, while somewhat more resilient to water stress than Oilseeds, still require a moderate level of moisture for optimal growth. The meagre rainfall is projected to result in up to 20% decline in yields for significant Pulses like Chickpeas and Lentils. Reduced Pulse production could contribute to price hikes, potentially affecting household budgets.

Economic Ramifications

India’s agricultural sector plays a pivotal role in the nation’s economy, and the rainfall deficiency is poised to have far-reaching consequences. Reduced crop yields translate to lower incomes for farmers, compounding their existing financial vulnerabilities. Industries reliant on these raw materials, such as edible Oil refineries and Pulse processing units, are also bracing for the impact.

Food Security Concerns

As the rainfall shortfall affects vital crops, food insecurity risk looms large. With the situation unlikely to improve dramatically as Kharif sowing draws to a close, there is a potential demand-supply mismatch in the offing. The resulting inflationary pressures could have a cascading effect on the broader economy.

Climate-Resilient Solutions

Abnormal rainfall recurrence patterns underscore the importance of promoting climate-resilient crop varieties. Such varieties can better withstand erratic climatic conditions, providing a buffer against future uncertainties. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) emphasizes the significance of climate-resilient crops in adapting to the changing climate.

Market Outlook

Although some regions, like Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, have irrigation coverage to mitigate the impact of scanty rainfall, the overall situation calls for preparedness. Forecasting models suggest a potential revival of the monsoon starting from September 2023, bringing above-normal rains to specific regions. The Indian Meteorological Department predicts heavy rainfall over certain areas in early September 2023, offering some relief.

OFB’s Insight 

The ongoing rainfall scenario in South and Central India is a stark reminder of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Oilseeds, Pulses, and Paddy, the backbone of Indian agriculture, face substantial risks. Mitigating these challenges requires immediate action, such as encouraging diversification into less water-dependent crops and investing in research for drought-resistant varieties can help mitigate the adverse effects of erratic rainfall. A collaborative effort between the government, agricultural experts, and farmers is essential to navigate these challenges and ensure the sustainability of Indian agriculture in the face of changing climate patterns.

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